Skip to content

FKH 2020 Raptor Count Totals for Curry Hammock

December 12, 2020

Above are the totals for migratory diurnal birds of prey documented during the FKH 2020 fall season, September 15 through November 15.

Midterm Results – Half a Season Gone & Counting!

October 26, 2020
Swallow-tailed Kites are gorgeous, graceful masters of flight!

We couldn’t be happier with our amazing results through the first half of the season! The 2020 count began September 15th and will run through November 15th. It’s always a challenge with timing, when we begin earlier we catch more of the iconic Swallow-tailed Kites. These fascinating birds migrate through Florida by the thousands, but they begin their southward migration in mid-July. Even though it would be extremely interesting to monitor this poorly understood Swallow-tailed Kite migration, this would literally double the length & expense of our typical two-month count season! Unfortunately, it would be a rough stretch for counters as there would be little else migrating and it’s exceptionally hot, but still it is a goal of ours to one day add a Swallow-tailed Kite migration watch!

Adult light morph Short-tailed Hawk – photo Jeff Bouton

We have typically begun September 1 and have run through October for a full two months of counting. Unfortunately, we also acknowledge that Turkey Vultures, Short-tailed Hawks & Swainson’s Hawk migration peaks at the very end of October and these flights definitely run into November as well. So ending October 31 costs us views of some of these unique species as well. FKH is the only US hawkwatch to receive flights of Short-taileds and the only eastern watch with large flocks of Swainson’s Hawks passing (100+ in some years). With the uncertainties of COVID and changing health safety protocols, we wound up starting later (Sept 15) and will run through mid-November, which should allow us to capture most of the Vultures and late Buteos happily.

2019 was a tough season with East winds on almost every day and comparatively few birds detected. It was actually our lowest flight totals since 2010, which (perhaps not coincidentally) was a year dominated by east winds and lack of the cold fronts that promote the best migration over FKH. As you can see in the chart above, we had already surpassed the total 2019 count totals after just our first month of counting in 2020. More in total, more Bald Eagles, more Northern Harriers, more Ospreys, more Cooper’s Hawks, more Broad-winged Hawks and a lot more Peregrines! We already surpassed the average seasonal counts for 5 species and again had a month of counting left. So as stated at the top, we really could not have asked for a better start to the season.

The Peregrine Falcon number was fueled by a record TEN straight days with triple-digit PEFA flights passing the watch. On three other years (2014, 2015, 2016) we’d had 8 consecutive days with 100+ Peregrines, but never more. This string of ten days in a row pushed an amazing 2,430 Peregrine Falcons past us, and represents our new best streak!

Sadly, after one of our best starts to a season ever, the record-breaking Tropical Storm season has effectively squelched most of our flights. The Keys and southern FL peninsula have been blanketed by storm bands more often than not over the past 7 days, seriously reducing and impeding the raptor flight to and through the Keys, thanks to Hurricane Epsilon and soon to be H. Zeta!

In the 10 days since the 15th, only 1,410 total raptors have been tallied, with less than 400 over the past 6 days. In the interim we’re patiently waiting for the skies to clear and the winds to turn favorable to see what other treats the 2020 migration has in store for us.

Peregrine Days 2020 Recap

October 19, 2020
Juvenile Peregrine Falcon

There was no official “Peregrine Days” celebration nor did we hold our annual “Hawk Mania” event this year. However, even though Covid-19 may have disrupted nearly every aspect of human life in 2020, this human pandemic wouldn’t stop Peregrine Falcons from migrating. This fact provided a very welcome distraction for the FKH team and the happy visitors we’ve seen at the watch so far this fall!

As many of you may know, October 10th is statistically the best day for total Peregrine detections at FKH (even though weather patterns may cause days on either side to be better) and is the reason we’ve dubbed this date, “The Day of the Peregrines” or “Dia de los Peregrinos” – our own private holiday. The long weekend that surrounds this period is typically our “Peregrine Days Celebration”.

October 10th, 2020 opened with light East winds turning south with raptor numbers growing throughout the day – 23 Peregrines by 11:00 AM, 134 by 2:00 PM, and 240 by 4:00 PM. The south winds had the birds streaming by toward the distant bay side of the Key all day, but by evening there was a great falcon flight with birds passing lower and closer which kept us on the watch until 6:45 PM (our longest count day of the season). This evening flight was predominantly American Kestrels providing our first triple-digit flight of these beautiful little falcons at 174. But this was “The Day of the Peregrines” after all, and we celebrated with high-fives finishing with a whopping 312 Peregrines for the day (a top 20 daily count at FKH)! However, we all knew that the falcons were flying well into the evening and the weather for 10/11 was predicted to be the same. In our guts we all knew and thought “tomorrow could be even better”.

As we’d hoped, 10/11/2020 kicked off with a bang and almost 250 raptors passed in the first two hours including 39 Peregrines, but as we moved into the 11:00 hour it became apparent this was far more than JUST a big Peregrine flight. We had great diversity from the beginning with 7 early Mississippi Kites, a late juvenile Swallow-tailed Kite, promising early Accipiter numbers and exceptional Broad-winged Hawk counts (by FKH standards). Oh yes, and there were Peregrines, loads of Peregrines in mixed species kettles of raptors.

Juvenile Broad-winged Hawk digiscoped at Curry Hammock Park – Peregrine Days 2020

By noon the kettling had ceased and the birds were now simply streaming by without circling, almost as if someone had turned on a massive raptor faucet. Wings partially-tucked, the birds raced over 20 birds abreast in this constant stream for over 4 hours. Broad-wingeds, Peregrines, Sharp-shinneds, American Kestrels, Cooper’s Hawks, Harriers and Ospreys all blending into a mass of streaming raptors over the middle Keys. The flight peaked late in the day with 900 raptors tallied in the single hour between 3:00 & 4:00 PM: 591 Broad-wingeds, 91 Sharpies & 151 Peregrine Falcons! We wrapped up this mind-numbing day (our best of the season & one of the best in recent memory) at 6:30 PM under NW winds. The remarkable daily total reached 3,486 total raptors of 13 species including a new FKH daily record of 1,970 Broad-wingeds and our fourth best, all-time daily Peregrine flight of 557!

See full details on the daily report posted on!

White-crowned Pigeons juvenile & adult digiscoped by Jeff Bouton, Kowa Sporting Optics

We started 10/12/2020 not knowing what to expect, the winds were more favorable but it seemed highly unlikely we’d see a repeat of the astounding flight experienced on the 11th. Abundant migrants passerines including Redstarts, Black-throated Blue, Palm, Prairie & Cape May Warblers, Waterthrushes, & Ovenbirds mixed with the resident Florida specialties like White-crowned Pigeons carpeting the tropical vegetation in Curry Hammock State Park, as we made our way to the hawkwatch. The Northwest winds brought the birds directly over the watch at closer range; a pleasant break from the past two days with distant raptors streaming over the bay side of the Key.

By 10:30 we’d already tallied over 500 raptors with nearly 80 Peregrines when counter Luis Gles spotted an unexpected treat. “BAHAMA SWALLOW, BAHAMA SWALLOW!!!…” he called. There were only 4 people on the watch at that point, but all present thoroughly enjoyed their first views of these incredibly rare tropical visitors! Three of these birds lazily looped above the hawk watch platform for a few minutes before slowly drifting out of sight to the south.

Bahama Swallow images by FKH counter Mariah Hryniewich 10/12/20

These three represented the first documented Bahama Swallow records in the continental US since 2014 when FKH staff found another small group from the watch. Luis was quick to report this sighting rarities, and by day’s end, 16 people were fortunate enough to see these rare and lovely visitors that continued to pass sporadically, well into the evening. The spectacular flight of raptors was impressive once again, soaring to another high daily total of 2,136 total birds with another 521 Peregrine Falcons!

The chart below summarizes the amazing three day total of raptors tallied by FKH through the “Peregrine Days” celebration window.

A total of 6,422 total raptors highlighted by almost 2,400 Broad-winged Hawks, just under 1,400 Peregrine Falcons, 1,081 Sharpies and 732 Kestrels as raptor highlights with the 3 rare Caribbean stray, Bahama Swallows as icing on a very birdy cake!

The FKH 2020 Count Team

September 29, 2020

Luis Gles and Mariah Hryniewich will lead counts during FKH 2020.

Talented hawkwatchers return to FKH during the 2020 fall migration season at Curry Hammock and Long Key State Parks. Our lead counter this year is Luis Gles, who has returned to the project for the third consecutive year. Luis is from Colombia and resides in Miami, where he has gained tremendous experience with the regional avifauna, and with migrants as a volunteer at the Cape Florida Banding Station in Key Biscayne. Joining him at the watch this year is Mariah Hryniewich, an avid naturalist from Port Charlotte who is passionate about Florida and has earned her stripes while birding the Gulf coast and traveling throughout the country.

Luis and Mariah will be joined by Mark Hedden and Ellen Westbrook from Florida Keys Audubon Society, and Kevin Welsh.

Mariah scans towards the west, joined by Krystal Vineyard, ranger at Long Key SP.

The 2020 Season Has Started!

September 21, 2020

The 2020 Florida Keys Hawkwatch fall migration count will operate daily from September 15 through November 15.

Official counter Luis Gles is back to lead the count effort at Curry Hammock and Long Key State Parks.

A Peregrine Falcon joins a Roseate Spoonbill in flight. Photo by Luis Gles.

The season is off to a great start with steady Osprey flights and many highlights. On the first morning of count, Luis Gles found a Hudsonian Godwit at the Curry Hammock beach – a species not only new to the project but also new to the state park, and possibly the first documented record for the Florida Keys.

Hudsonian Godwit at Curry Hammock. Photo by Luis Gles.

2019 Fall Season In Review

September 20, 2020

Compiled by Jeff Bouton and Rafael Gálvez

The Florida Keys Hawkwatch 2019 fall count season was conducted from September 7 through October 31, 2019. The season’s start was delayed a week by Hurricane Dorian, a powerful Category 5 storm that raged along the Atlantic. Florida’s governor declared a state of emergency on August 28 resulting in the closing of facilities associated with the project, including state parks and housing.

Official counters for 2019 were Luis Gles, Karl Bardon and Felipe Anaya Osorio.

Karl Bardon, Felipe Anaya Osorio and Luis Gles

The 2019 hawk count season in the Florida Keys, which operated from September 7th – October 31st was notable for being our 20th year of operation. However, the fall 2019 weather was unusual in that it was almost devoid of cold fronts with N to NW winds, which have historically proven to be the most conducive for promoting large hawk flights over the Florida Keys. The bulk of the 2019 count days were plagued by comparatively unproductive easterly winds leading to lower detections and below average counts overall. The chart below lists daily wind directions. To summarize, favorable N to NW winds were only recorded on 3 of 55 (5%) count days and easterly on 43 of 55 (78%) days.

2019 Migratory Raptor Count – FKH at Curry Hammock State Park

2019 Winds:
East – 25 of 55 count days (45%),
NE – 12 days (22%)
SE – 6 days (11%)
S – 4 days (7%)
SW – 3 days (5%)
W – 2 days (4%)
N – 2 days (4%)
NW – 1 day of 55 count days (2%).

The fall 2019 total count was only 13,781 raptors, which is the lowest full season total we have recorded since the 2010 count of 10,227 raptors. Likely not coincidentally, the winds in 2010 were easterly on 81% of the count days. Despite poor winds reducing overall raptor numbers over the middle keys, there were individual daily highlights throughout, which will be covered in the species accounts below.

Turkey Vulture. Photo by Chris Payne.

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus)           HMANA Code: BV

Average: 2
Max: 4 (2019)
Min: 1 (2018)

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)             HMANA Code: TV

Average: 3,908
Max: 11,475 (2000)
Min: 994 (2019)
Notable: 5714 (Oct 30,2012)
3833 (Oct 26,2014)
2632 (Oct 28,2000)

Even though we recorded a new high daily and seasonal count of 4 Black Vultures on October 11, 2019, the number is of marginal significance given the comparatively small sample size. The continuing scarcity of BV over the mid to lower keys reinforces what we have noted in past seasons, that Black Vultures prefer to stay on the mainland of the Florida peninsula rather than migrate down onto the Florida Keys, presumably due to their hesitance to cross open water.

FKH historic data shows the peak of the Turkey Vulture migration occurs from the last week in October through the first two weeks in November. So much of the seasonal fluctuation here is relative to whether or not we have favorable conditions in late October before wrapping up the season.

Timing / Average fall weekly count of Turkey Vultures at FKH via

The 2019 tally of 994 Turkey Vultures falls well below the seasonal average count of 3,908 (only 25.4%). However, that average is slightly skewed by the fact that some past seasons have continued into November. As expected, TV flights picked up in late October with seasonal high days of 153 and 226 tallied on October 27th and 28th respectively on east winds. Anecdotally, the winds did turn north on November 2nd and 3rd, 2019 and recreational birders shared reports of large Turkey Vulture and buteo flights over the middle and lower keys. These included a single kettle of 104 Turkey Vultures over Blue Hole on Big Pine Key on the evening of November 2nd 2019; and then multiple large kettles streaming west while driving north toward the mainland on November 3, 2019: >150 TV over Marathon at 11:50 a.m. in a single kettle (with stragglers streaming behind to ~175 TV) with 15 Swainson’s Hawks and 3 Short-tailed Hawks in the same flock; and an additional 137 from Long Key State Park near 12:44 p.m. with more SW and ST Hawks as well. In short it seems the largest TV flights came just after our season wrapped up in 2019 and the count would have certainly been much higher if the watch had been manned on those days.

Ospreys. Photos by Rafael Galvez.

Ospreys, Eagles, & Harriers
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)                     HMANA Code: OS

Average: 1424
Max: 3635 (2014)
Min: 453 (2010)
Notable: 394 (Sep 25,2014)
340 (Oct 01,2003)
316 (Oct 01,2014)

Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)    HMANA Code: BE

Average: 19
Max: 46 (2015)
Min: 4 (2019)
Notable: 8 (Oct 30,2015)
8 (Oct 06,2015)
6 (Oct 02,2010)

Northern Harrier (Circus hudsonius)       HMANA Code: NH

Average: 635
Max: 1063 (2011)
Min: 332 (2009)
Notable 238 (Oct 20,2011)
150 (Oct 18,1999)
139 (Oct 20,2012)

Osprey numbers in 2019 were well above the seasonal average with 2,250 individuals counted (3rd highest season count behind 2014 and 2018 respectively). It is assumed that this fish-eating species will follow the coastal path, so may be less affected by adverse winds than other soaring species not necessarily tied to the coast. The peak daily count of 220 individuals occurred on September 22, which was also the highest total raptor count for September as well as our 2nd highest all-time count for Merlins! The winds were NE on this day, but they were strong and consistent, unlike many other days which were light and variable.

Bald Eagle numbers were at an all-time low with only 4 individuals tallied. BE were observed far more often but these were considered to be part of a local resident population that nested just north of the count site. Both OS and BE are difficult to count accurately given that the resident populations can mix with migrant birds, but this challenge is consistent from year to year.

The Northern Harrier count tally was also well below seasonal averages with 455 tallied in fall 2019 and peak days falling at 46 individuals or less. It is safe to assume that this species tally was absolutely affected by the winds in 2019. NH flights peak in the third week in October but remain strong through the first week in November so it is possible that good flights were missed during the strong northerly winds on November 2-3.

Mississippi Kite. Photo by Rafael Galvez

Mississippi Kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)     HMANA Code: MK

Average: 57
Max: 128 (2014)
Min: 6 (2006)
Notable: 28 (Sep 27,2012)
23 (Sep 16,2001)
21 (Sep 15,2019)

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus)   HMANA Code: SK

Average: 53
Max: 256 (2014)
Min: 3 (2000)
Notable: 65 (Sep 04,2014)
50 (Sep 09,2018)
47 (Sep 03,2014)

Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis)                HMANA Code: SN

Average: 2
Max: 4 (2018)
Min: 1 (2016)
Notable: 2 (Oct 21,2018)
1 (Sep 28,2007)
1 (Oct 10,2019)

White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus)              HMANA Code: WK

Average: 1
Max: 1 (2014)
Min: 1 (2014)
Notable: 1 (Oct 17,2014)

In 2019 we once again tallied three species of Kites from the hawkwatch. Mississippi Kite numbers were well above the average seasonal total with 94 individuals tallied and single day counts of 21 individuals tallied September 15th (third highest single day flight) and 14 more on September 16th on SW and W winds respectively. Our historic data shows that the peak of detections of MK occurs from mid-September through the first week in October so this is right at the beginning of this peak season.

Swallow-tailed Kites were above the seasonal average with 89 individuals tallied from the hawkwatch platform in 2019, but still a long way from the record flights. This is related to seasonality and start up dates. We know from our historic data that the biggest daily flights in FKH history have all occurred in the first 9 days of September and graphing our data shows that SK are already at peak abundance by the September 1 start up. Since our count started September 7, 2019 – delayed by Hurricane Dorian along the Atlantic – we missed our historic peak window that falls during our typical count range.

Timing / Average fall weekly count of Swallow-tailed Kites at FKH via

The reality is that the bulk of SK migrate before the count even begins. We know that SK stage in preparation for migration in July and numbers at these communal roosts drop through August. We are not manning the watch early enough to capture the peak of this migration.

The graph above is courtesy of and shows sightings for SK in Monroe county with highest daily counts in late July and August (exceed record days from FKH by almost 500%). SK are rarely detected in the Florda Keys in June, with only 4 individuals being reported during that month to eBird in the past decade. However, that changes dramatically in July.

The following eBird report by Andy Kratter of the Florida Museum of Natural History, is from Grassy Key less then 2 miles NE of Curry Hammock on July 25, 2019 – Between 2:20 p.m. and 2:35 p.m. he counted 136 Swallow-tailed Kites, including a single kettle of 120 birds. The single photo included shows 61 individual birds at once (FKH record day is only 65). Similarly, an eBird report from Bryan White from Long Key State Park reports 150 SK passing in 2 southbound groups on midday of August 25, 2019 –

Unfortunately, the data FKH captures on Swallow-tailed Kite migration represents just the very tail end of SK migration. These two single reports document 286 migrant SK in a mere 25 minutes of observation a full month apart. Increasing valuable Swallow-tailed Kite monitoring is a long term goal of the Florida Keys Hawkwatch, but this would likely be treated as an additional count effort overlapping with the regular count. The biggest challenges to this goal are the fiscal considerations of additional labor as well as the prohibitive costs of housing in the keys. Adding a Swallow-tailed Kite satellite monitoring project would require a minimum of $5,000 to cover expenses alone, the bulk of course going just toward housing.

On October 10, 2019, a single juvenile Snail Kite was seen and photographed passing directly over the hawkwatch shortly after 3 p.m. in a mixed kettle (photo courtesy Jeff Bouton). These sightings, while still unusual, are becoming a near-annual occurrence over the past few years. The bird streamed right through that afternoon disappearing to the south and was not seen returning by the time the watch ended for the day at 6 pm. Interestingly, this bird or another juvenile was observed hunting the following morning at Long Key SP during the daily census.

No White-tailed Kites were seen in 2019. The sighting on October 17, 2014 remains the only record from the hawkwatch.

Sharp-shinned Hawk. FKH Archives

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus)      HMANA Code: SS

Average: 2585
Max: 4741 (1999)
Min: 596 (2018)
Notable: 1525 (Oct 20,2011)
1472 (Oct 18,2008)
1241 (Oct 10,2015)

Cooper’s Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)              HMANA Code: CH

Average: 533
Max: 1036 (2004)
Min: 136 (2019)
Notable: 155 (Oct 19,2008)
152 (Sep 28,2007)
127 (Oct 22,2011)

While the 2019 Sharp-shinned Hawk count of 1,473 was well below the season average of 2,585 it was not as bad as other recent years, more than twice the 2018 all time low, and ~40% higher than 2016 (2017 cancelled following park closures after Hurricane Irma). Given the small size of these birds they are likely affected heavily by wind direction. It is difficult to assess what effect easterly winds might have had on the detection of these flights. As the smallest of the raptors passing by, detection is another real difficulty. Days with very light winds and high thermal activity can provide enormous lift making these small birds extremely difficult to detect in clear blue skies. We have even witnessed birds soaring so high that they literally disappear into a lower ceiling of clouds.

However, Cooper’s Hawks are another story entirely. The 2019 count of only 136 CH is not only well below average but is by far, the lowest full season count ever recorded at FKH. The next lowest tally was 237 in 2010 and then 371 in 2018. Other recent flights have exceeded 800 individuals. We are at a loss to explain this anomaly and can only assume this is an effect of the odd winds. We will be very curious to monitor the 2020 Cooper’s Hawk flights. As the chart demonstrates, the entire CH 2020 total is lower than two of our record daily counts for the species and barely higher than the third highest daily count!

Adult dark-morph Short-tailed Hawk. Photo by Chris Payne.

Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus)    HMANA Code: BW

Average: 3968
Max: 7236 (2012)
Min: 1538 (2015)
Notable: 1398 (Oct 30,2012)
1363 (Oct 10,2011)
1255 (Oct 16,2010)

Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)       HMANA Code: RS
Average: 22
Max: 72 (2011)
Min: 1 (2002)
Notable: 17 (Oct 22,2011)
13 (Oct 23,2016)
11 (Oct 25,2011)

Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus)        HMANA Code: ST
Average: 33
Max: 65 (2015)
Min: 15 (2003)
Notable: 17 (Oct 30,2015)
11 (Oct 31,2015)
11 (Oct 21,2018)

Swainson’s Hawk (Buteo swainsoni)            HMANA Code: SW
Average: 66
Max: 156 (2011)
Min: 4 (2016)
Notable: 56 (Oct 30,2012)
50 (Oct 30,2015)
41 (Oct 31,2015)

Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)          HMANA Code: RT
Average: 2
Max: 5 (2001)
Min: 0 (2019)
Notable: 3 (Nov 11,2001)
2 (Oct 25,2011)
1 (Sep 28,2011)

Buteos are broad-winged soaring hawks that are very dependent on thermals and uplifts during migration, avoiding powered, flapping flight as much as possible. They are a diverse group with varied diets and with very different wing structure between species, but as a whole they are less apt to undertake long water crossings compared to other species groups. This has made these birds difficult to count in the Keys – much like vultures – as they are more prone to linger or backtrack. We have maintained consistent count methodology though insuring variables are limited so long-term data should still provide useful population trending.

The most abundant migrant buteo species across the Eastern U.S. is easily the Broad-winged Hawk, typically appearing in large “kettles” often reaching hundreds and sometimes thousands of individuals, particularly on inland ridge sites. Coastal sites throughout the east tend to see fewer, and the bulk of the Broad-wingeds migrate West of the Gulf of Mexico and down the Mexican mainland in fall. In 2019 FKH recorded a respectable 2,787 Broad-wingeds in migration. Still lower than the seasonal average but not our lowest year by any means. Our peak days were back to back flights on October 9th and 10th with 574 and 530 BW tallied respectively. These were the best two count days of the season as well at

1,627 and 1,499 raptors tallied respectively (>22% of total raptor detections, 40% of total BW on two days).

Unlike BW that winter to Northern Bolivia in central South America, Red-shouldered Hawks only winter as far south as the Florida Keys and not beyond. Most stay on the mainland though, so these are recorded in lower densities at FKH, and 2019 was a fairly typical season with 15 RS tallied. However, the bulk of the migratory Northern subspecies, nominate Buteo lineatus lineatus, is known to migrate very late in the season with peak flights in the NE occurring late October into November so it is possible we would tally more if we extended our season into November.

Short-tailed Hawks are a tropical raptor only reaching the US in number in Florida, so FKH is the only U.S.-based hawk watch site that has a migratory flight of ST to monitor. Very little is known about the movements of these raptors in the state, with limited data from FKH over the years and some telemetry studies conducted by Ken Meyer and the Avian Research & Conservation Institute (ARCI) This research seems to suggest that Short-taileds are somewhat sedentary and do not wander far. However, our sightings and other anecdotal detections seem to suggest we do not fully understand their movements and need to invest more time and effort to understand why so many of these birds come to the Keys. As with other buteos including Swainson’s Hawks, this species’ numbers build through late October and presumably continues well into November.

Timing / Average fall weekly count of Short-tailed Hawks at FKH via

You can see from the FKH migration data that two of our peak daily flights have occurred just as we are typically wrapping up our season on October 30 and 31. We have continued into November on a handful of seasons but even with this limited data collection we note that the peak detections for this species continue at least through the first week in November.

Swainson’s Hawks are another unique species with a mysterious distribution. Primarily a breeder through midwestern plain states and Canadian prairies, very few SH are tallied on other eastern hawkwatch sites. Here in Florida however, we have small localized wintering populations and FKH typically tallies dozens of this Western raptor species each year. No one fully understands how these raptors get here, nor what route they take. In 2019 FKH counted 59 Swainson’s Hawks, which is only slightly below the season average.

Timing / Average fall weekly count of Swainson’s Hawks at FKH via

You can see that like Short-tailed Hawks, Swainson’s migration peaks late, with best flights all being tallied on the final days of our current season (Oct 30 and 31), and that these flights carry on well into November. The high season count from 2011 was (not coincidentally) one of the few seasons when the hawk count continued until mid-November. Over these two weeks, 2,328 additional raptors were tallied including 1,200 Turkey Vultures, 17 Short-tailed hawks and 68 Swainson’s Hawks (more than our entire 2019 count of SW). Again anecdotally, strong Northerly winds blew in the Keys on November 2-3, 2019 and birders noted massive raptor flights while driving north toward mainland Florida on November 3rd, reporting many hundreds of Turkey Vultures and over 21 individual Swainson’s Hawks (15 in a single kettle over Marathon) and 9 Short-taileds. They noted that all of these birds were streaming south and the counts occurred were only when they noticed larger groups and pulled over to count, so the actual totals were likely notably higher. As a short term goal, we would like to extend the hawkwatch to mid-November to record these ornithologically significant Short-tailed and eastern Swainson’s Hawk flights. Again, expensive Keys housing has proven to be prohibitive with leases only running for full months.

Most Red-tailed Hawks winter north of the Florida Keys, so these are rarely seen and in 2019 we recorded none. Like Black Vultures, they are commonly seen on the mainland, but rare in the Keys.

Peregrine Falcon. Photo by Kerry Ross


American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)    HMANA Code: AK

Average: 2337
Max: 4338 (2001)
Min: 1275 (2006)
Notable: 966 (Oct 01,2001)
648 (Oct 06,2000)
591 (Oct 16,1999)

Merlin (Falco columbarius)                 HMANA Code: ML

Average: 540
Max: 1042 (2018)
Min: 182 (2010)
Notable: 110 (Oct 14,2018)
102 (Sep 22,2019)
88 (Oct 07,2018)

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus)    HMANA Code: PG

Average: 2501
Max: 4559 (2015)
Min: 1344 (2010)
Notable: 1506 (Oct 10,2015)
651 (Oct 10,2012)
638 (Oct 11,2008)

Falcons (particularly Merlins and Peregrines) prefer to migrate coastally and largest counts have always come from coastal hawkwatch sites in the East like Cape May, NJ, Kiptopeke, VA and of course the Florida Keys Hawkwatch.

Despite lower than typical recent counts on many species, American Kestrels rebounded fairly nicely. While still below the 20-year seasonal average, the 2019 count of 2,121 Kestrels was a significant improvement over the low count from 2018 of only 1,489 AK and 2016’s 1,814. American Kestrel numbers have dropped significantly across the U.S. suspected as a result of changes in agricultural practices and fire policies resulting in less favorable grassland habitats. So seeing an upward trend is encouraging, maintaining the understanding that a single year’s count is not necessarily representative of population trending, but we can hope this is the beginning of a more positive trend for this species.

The 2019 Merlin count of 749 was well above the past season average count and is one of our highest

allies for this species, but still falls behind recent counts from 2018, 2016 and 2014. Unlike Kestrels, Merlin populations have been trending positively at coastal hawkwatches and they have recently expanded their breeding territories to the south, showing up for the first time as breeders in Ohio as example, with 2 nesting pairs found this year. This is good news for this aggressive little falcon species. As a 2019 highlight, the record high flight of 102 birds on September 22nd was the second highest daily flight on record and only our second count over the century mark!

Of course, the bird for which FKH is renowned is the Peregrine Falcon, earning FKH the nickname “Peregrine Falcon Capital of the World”. This not just hype, there is literally no spot on the entire globe where one can go to see more Peregrine Falcons (or even close) than in the Florida Keys; the world record for both seasonal, daily and even hourly flights has been set and rebroken here repeatedly over the past decade! The perfect mix of topography – the archipelago provides excellent hunting opportunities for this fast, bird-eating species as birds push toward South American wintering grounds. For young falcons still honing their hunting skills, spotting a small passerine (songbird) over water provides multiple opportunities for capture when the first attempts fail (over land the bird can simply plummet into the brush below for safety and it’s game over for the Peregrine). You can see this almost daily in October on coastal beaches and barrier islands up and down the east coast with hungry Peregrines perched on snags or driftwood looking out to sea expectantly.

In 2019 we tallied 2,517 PF, our lowest seasonal Peregrine total since 2010. However, there was a highlight with the 4th highest daily PF flight of 574 on October 9th and 530 more on October 10th (not coincidentally 2 of the only days with stronger northerly winds and our best two raptor tallies of the season). Of note, October 10th is the single date with the most Peregrine detections of any day in FKH history and our two, world record high flights occurred on October 10th on 2015 and 2012 respectively. For anyone wanting to see this Peregrine Falcon world class spectacle we always recommend picking a window of days on either side of October 10 to be guaranteed a massive flight. We’ve fondly referred to this day as “Peregrine Day” and “Dia de Los Peregrinos” but are realistically going to propose this as “International day of the Peregrine”. Of note, both of these peak flight days recorded at FKH exceeded Cape May’s entire season total for Peregrines (see below)!

While the winds may have affected the lower 2019 seasonal tally to a degree, there is clearly more going on here than just poor winds, as the two other prominent Peregrine Falcon hawkwatches in the Eastern US showed very dramatic declines from 2018 to 2019 as well.

Cape May, NJ = 1,521 PF in 2018; 480 in 2019 (68% decline)
Kiptopeke, VA = 1,375 PF in 2018; 646 in 2019 (53% decline)

This may be an indication that Peregrine Falcon populations in the Arctic had poor breeding success last summer, as one very plausible explanation for such a dramatic decline from one year to the next (FKH down 30%, Cape May down 68%, Kiptopeke down 53%). Poor breeding success due to eggshell thinning caused by DDT was the whole reason for the Peregrine Falcon (as well as Bald Eagle and Osprey) population crashes in the 30’s. It has taken enormous resources and much time to rebuild these populations to healthy levels, so this re-emphasizes the importance of consistent monitoring at sites like FKH, to sound-off warnings more rapidly when we see trends like this. If we see similar results in 2020 we will analyze our notes to compare percentages of adults to juveniles birds passing to see if we are noting the ratios of adults to juveniles changing dramatically as example.

The primary official counters during the fall of 2019 were Luis Gles and Karl Bardon, with assisting official counter Felipe Anaya Osorio. Additional assistance was provided by Rafael Galvez, Mark Hedden and Jeff Bouton. For hourly, daily and seasonal breakdowns of the 2019 season visit the HawkCount online repository, administered by the Hawk Migration Association of North America (HMANA). Link:

2019 Season Started September 7, 2019

October 6, 2019

A breakdown of our daily and hourly count is available through HawkCount – the Hawk Migration Association of North America’s Raptor Migration Database. Click the link below:

FKH Season in Review: 2018

July 15, 2019

The 2018 season was very successful as the numbers go, and even more memorable. We tallied a total of 19,067 raptors, the sixth highest total in the count’s history. Highlights included observing an impressive 18 species of raptors, setting records for both Merlins and Snail Kites, and getting to witness an incredible migration of 500 Peregrine Falcons in a single day! The Florida Keys Hawkwatch is truly one of the most unique and remarkable hawkwatches in the country, and one that I, personally, was honored to be a part of in 2018.


We recorded a total of 3,210 Turkey Vultures this season, but they were just beginning to show up in big numbers in the count’s final week. Many more are sure to go through in the month of November. It may come as a surprise to many that we only recorded a single Black Vulture this season, but they are actually quite difficult to find from the Hawkwatch. They do not like to cross water, so they become more and more scarce the farther you go down the Keys. In fact, BVs have only been recorded in four prior seasons, so this was a very good find indeed.

Osprey by Rafael Galvez

Ospreys, Eagles, & Harriers

It was a fantastic year for Ospreys as we came up just short of 3,000 with 2,992. This was the second highest total ever behind only 2014, and the 1,392 in October were the most ever for the month. Bald Eagles were right at the season average of 20. This is a species that does not really go any farther south than the Keys, so migrant numbers are fairly low. The season total of 748 Northern Harriers was the fourth highest at FKH, and only about 100 behind the record. We cracked triple digits for them on October 13th with 110, a good number for any hawkwatch.

Swallow-tailed Kite by Kevan Sunderland


It was an outstanding year for all three kite species that we observed. After September we thought we might break the record for Mississippi Kites, but only 14 went through in October to give us 116 in total: 12 shy of the record. The bulk of the Swallow-tailed Kites also came through in September and finished with a total of 162, the third highest total for a season. Arguably the most impressive part of the season was the four Snail Kites that we saw heading south. This is a species that is largely thought to be non-migratory and really has no business being in the Keys. Before this season there had only been two other Snail Kites recorded in the history of the count, so we clearly got to witness an unprecedented and potentially once-in-a-lifetime event in 2018. White-tailed Kite is the only species of raptor that has been seen from the hawkwatch that we did not have this year.


Unfortunately, the accipiters never really showed up this year. We had the lowest Sharp-shinned Hawk total ever with only 596, well below the previous low. This does not mean that Sharpies are in dire straits, only that their migration was late this year. Most of the northern hawkwatches were reporting large numbers of this species during our last week of the count; they just couldn’t quite make it here in time. Cooper’s Hawks fared a little better, but were still below average with a total of 371. It is likely that more of them will also come through in November, as this is a species that has been trending upwards nationally in recent years.

Swainson’s Hawk by Ted Keyel


Buteos are the most diverse group of raptors in North America and at FKH, with five different species being recorded this year. Broad-winged Hawks are the most famous at hawkwatches due to the large migratory groups, called kettles, they form. At our site, they can be difficult to count because their aversion to water often causes them to backtrack after they reach Key West. We had a solid year for S-bound Broad-wings with 4,453, a little above the season average. The most we had in a single day for them was 1,515… unfortunately heading north. This would have been a daily record had they been flying in the right direction. Red-shouldered Hawks, like Bald Eagles, don’t really go beyond the Keys in migration so we typically see them in small density. This year we had only 8, which is about a third of the average. Short-tailed Hawks are a Florida specialty that don’t truly migrate, but seem to disperse in the fall. This year we had a total of 49 S-bound, the fourth most in a season here. Swainson’s Hawks have a different story. They are a highly migratory western species that can be seen in very large numbers in Central America in the fall. However a small population winters in the Everglades, therefore they are a regular visitor to the Keys in migration. This year we had 25, well below the average but once again, a species that will probably pick up in November. Red-tailed Hawks are similar to Black Vultures in that they are very common on the mainland, but rare in the Keys. We had only one this year.

Merlin by Rafael Galvez


Falcons are the pride and joy of the Florida Keys Hawkwatch. For two of the three species, 2018 was a very successful year. American Kestrels were the exception however with a total of only 1,489 for the season. This came in as the fourth lowest total in the count’s history on the same year that some very impressive numbers were reported in the north. We were getting some good flights of kestrels right up until the end of the season though, so it could be that there are still more to come in November. The Merlin migration, on the other hand, was extraordinary this year. We broke the daily record with 110 on October 14th, and the season total with 1,042. The improved view as a result of Hurricane Irma’s passage in 2017 likely played a part in these numbers, but I think it’s safe to say that it was just a great year for Merlins. Finally we get to FKH’s most famous migrant: the Peregrine Falcon. We once again lived up to the title of the Peregrine Falcon Capital of the World with a final tally of 3,588, the fifth highest in the count’s history. This was capped by a total of exactly 500 passing by on October 13th, the fifth highest single day ever recorded. This is a spectacle that very few people have ever witnessed and most hawkwatches can only dream of. Hopefully there is an even better day next year!

Thanks to everybody who helped make Florida Keys Hawkwatch 2018 such a successful season, we’ll see you again in 2019!



Quality Over Quantity

October 29, 2018

Juvenile Swainson’s Hawk. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

The cold fronts of the past week did not produce the big numbers of raptors we were hoping for, but they provided us with some excellent views of these majestic predators. The north winds associated with cold fronts push the birds towards the southern edge of the Keys, or from our perspective, directly overhead. This has been a very welcoming flight line after weeks of distant birds flying by on the other side of the island. We have gotten stellar views of almost every species of raptor, not to mention some pretty good pictures. Luckily, the north winds are supposed to continue to the end of the season, so we have three more days for the big numbers to show up. Even if they don’t, we will certainly continue to enjoy the amazing views!

Juvenile Broad-winged Hawk. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Juvenile Cooper’s Hawk. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Merlin. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Peregrine Falcon. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Mississippi Kite. Photo by Luis Gles.

Chimney Swift. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Northern Waterthrush. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Magnolia Warbler. Photo by Alex Lamoreaux.

Florida Box Turtle (L), and Black-throated Blue Warbler (R). Photos by Alex Lamoreaux.

Snail Kites: Plural!!

October 22, 2018

The first Snail Kite gliding away. Photo by Chris Payne.

We were optimistic heading into Sunday because there were light north winds for the first time all season. We expected to see a lot of accipiters and Broad-winged Hawks but the thought of a Snail Kite never crossed our minds. As it turned out, we didn’t see one… we saw two! Both of the birds were juveniles and were headed south with the wind at their backs. The first one came directly overhead around 1:00, and the second was slightly bayside around 4:30. Snail Kites are largely considered to be non-migratory raptors. They are restricted in the U.S. from central Florida to the Everglades, so to have two in one day is completely unprecedented in the Keys. In fact, there had been only two others recorded in the 20 year history of FKH prior to today– one each in 2007 and 2016. There is no doubt we got to witness something special today; who knows what we might see tomorrow?

The first Snail Kite coming in, holding its wings in an M-shape similar to an Osprey. Photo by Luis Gles.